How to detect the hottest fungal infection and see

2022-09-23
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How to detect fungal infection? The number of patients with clinical invasive fungal infection has increased significantly in the past 10 years, which constitutes one of the main causes of death of hospitalized patients

when it comes to fungi, many people will think of all kinds of delicious mushrooms at the first time, as well as yeast that can ferment bread and beer. Yes, mushrooms such as Lentinus edodes and Flammulina velutipes belong to fungus plants. They are edible large fungi, while yeast belongs to beneficial bacteria, which can also be used for food or medicine. So compared with bacteria, are fungi beneficial, harmless and more popular

no! Although mushrooms and fermented food are delicious on people's table, there are more than 300 members of the fungal family that are pathogenic to humans. Fungal infection, which is often referred to in medicine, is caused by these harmful fungi, including superficial mycosis, cutaneous mycosis, subcutaneous mycosis, systemic mycosis and so on. Tinea pedis, tinea manus, tinea corporis, tinea cruris and other tinea diseases common in people's daily life belong to dermatomycosis, which is a kind of fungal infection. Generally speaking, this disease has a high incidence rate, is not easy to die, and can be cured. In contrast, subcutaneous mycosis and systemic mycosis are more serious, which may damage the internal organs of the whole body and even lead to death

how to detect fungal infection? The true face can be seen under the microscope

in order to avoid the damage caused by fungal infection to the human body, the medical community adopts the method of clinical microbiological examination to identify the species of fungi infected by patients. At present, direct microscopy, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection and other methods are mainly used to detect fungi, of which direct microscopy is the mainstream. It is understood that direct microscopic examination can also be divided into non stained specimen examination and stained specimen examination. Many fungal specimens can be directly examined under microscope without staining, that is, the samples are collected and placed on slides for processing. Fungal infection can be determined by observing fungal hyphae and spores under a microscope. In contrast, stained specimens are examined more carefully, and the morphology and structure of fungi can be observed more clearly, thus greatly improving the detection rate. At present, according to different strains and inspection requirements, different dyeing methods need to be selected, and the inclined block on the swing arm shall not be violently impacted, such as gram staining, lactic phenol cotton blue staining, glycogen staining, fluorescent staining, etc. It is worth mentioning that the fluorescence staining method mainly uses the immunofluorescence technology to label the antibody of the specimen with fluorescein, and then uses the fluorescence microscope to observe the specific fluorescence intensity of the specimen, so as to judge the species of fungi. For example, the fluorescence reaction of Candida albicans is yellow green, Cryptococcus neoformans is red, and so on

in addition to the traditional direct microscopic method, the medical community will also use antigen detection and nucleic acid detection to detect fungi. Antigen detection will adopt latex agglutination test, ELISA rapid detection, and semi quantitative radioimmunoassay to detect the meaning of innovation understood by plastic film blowing machine manufacturers for different samples. Nucleic acid detection mainly relies on molecular biology technology. Although the operation is simpler and the sensitivity and specificity are relatively high, the requirements for experimental conditions are also high. At present, it can not replace the conventional direct microscopic method

laboratory testing ability needs to be improved. Call for cost-effective domestic instruments

although there are many fungal detection methods and related technologies have also developed rapidly, at present, the clinical microbiology laboratories in domestic medical institutions do not necessarily have the ability and technology of fungal detection. On the whole, at present, the overall diagnostic level of clinical microbiology in China is still relatively low, the attention is not enough, and the personnel ability needs to be improved. To this end, recently, 27 experts and 446 hospitals in China participated in the preparation of the "expert consensus on basic requirements for the construction of fungal detection capacity in clinical microbiology laboratories", which has established basic standards for improving laboratory fungal detection capacity and popularizing and optimizing fungal diagnostic technology

it is true that at present, there are not many medical institutions with fungus detection ability in China. The tertiary general hospitals with better conditions may also be able to set up separate spring torsion tester fields and equipment in the fungus detection work area. Other hospitals and institutions with poor conditions cannot meet such needs in terms of hardware facilities. Except that some medical institutions do not pay enough attention to fungal detection, most of them are because the instruments and equipment required for fungal detection are expensive, and the operation process is complex, which requires professional technicians to complete in the laboratory. Combined with the current situation that imported instruments are widely used in domestic hospitals, domestic manufacturers of relevant scientific instruments should actively develop counterpart products, launch cost-effective domestic instruments that meet the testing needs, and break the import monopoly. From the perspective of medical institutions, domestic instruments can also be used for fungal detection, which can reduce the cost and facilitate the subsequent maintenance and repair of instruments

to improve the domestic clinical microbiological testing ability, in addition to strengthening the laboratory construction, it is also necessary to strengthen the training of talents and the joint use of traditional microbiology, molecular biology and Immunology testing methods. It is convenient to cultivate talents, which not only requires colleges and universities to set up relevant theoretical courses and experimental courses for fungal detection, so as to improve the teaching level of this discipline, but also requires medical institutions to provide more practical internship opportunities to cultivate the actual inspection ability of personnel, especially the instrument operation ability. In addition, domestic scientific research institutions and medical institutions also need to strengthen basic research, follow the international trend and develop more new technologies to provide technical support for the construction of qualified microbiology laboratories

of course, the ultimate goal of improving clinical microbiological testing ability is to serve the market and patients. At present, the basic pricing of domestic fungal detection is still generally lower than the actual cost, let alone economic benefits, which greatly reduces the enthusiasm of medical institutions and practitioners. However, raising the charging standard will increase the burden of seeing a doctor for patients, which is not conducive to the universal medical popularization. In this regard, it is necessary for China to formulate certain project charging standards for fungal testing, and provide subsidies to medical institutions when necessary to avoid losses. It is believed that with the continuous development of microbial testing technology, the cost of fungal detection will be reduced in the future. Medical institutions are expected to develop higher economic benefits in this field, and patients will not have to bear too much costs. This "win-win" model needs the joint efforts of scientific researchers, scientific instrument manufacturers and medical institutions

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