Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of

2022-08-19
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Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the plastic products industry's entry into WTO

first, joining the WTO is the only way to become an economic power in the 21st century

the world trade organization, abbreviated as "WTO" (WTO), replaces the general agreement on Tariffs and trade, and is one of the three international institutions (World Bank, International Monetary Fund and WTO) in the multilateral economic system. Due to historical reasons, China has made further progress in market cooperation. Modified plastics did not regain its legal seat in time in the early 1980s, and the issue of Customs resumption was raised only in 1986. On the issue of China's accession to the WTO, the Chinese government takes an attitude of actively striving for and letting nature take its course. In terms of the existing functions and coordination scope of the WTO, it has become a veritable "economic UN". In July 1997, when meeting with long Yongtu, the chief negotiator of the Ministry of economy and trade of China, WTO director general Ruggiero said, "the trend of economic globalization based on the free circulation of factors is irreversible, and the fences of all countries are being dismantled to cross the borders of all countries and formulate a unified world economy. A borderless economy based on economic globalization is taking shape on a global scale." With the further improvement of the interdependence of the world economic and Trade Organization, economic globalization and integration and regional collectivization have developed rapidly and have an increasingly prominent impact on the economy and trade of all countries. Economic globalization makes the coordination of global economic policies inevitable

the WTO has a set of mechanisms to resolve trade disputes and disputes, which meet the needs of the development of world economy and trade. As developing countries strive to achieve true national independence and economic prosperity, they should actively, pragmatically and flexibly participate in economic globalization. There is no other way. China's participation in the negotiations of the "Economic United Nations" is an important part of the reform and opening-up policy. As an economic power, China should participate in the formulation of economic and trade competition rules in the 21st century. General Secretary Jiang pointed out: "Economic globalization is an objective trend of world economic development, and no one can avoid it. Everyone has to participate in it. The key to the problem is to treat this trend of economic globalization dialectically, seeing both its advantages and disadvantages. This is particularly important for a large developing country like China. China should not only dare but also be good at participating in international economic cooperation and competition under the condition of economic globalization, and learn from it Will seek advantages and avoid disadvantages ". If we want to take advantage of the opportunities and meet the challenges brought by China's entry into the WTO, we must understand and master the rules, procedures and actual operation of the WTO; Investigate and study the impact of China's entry into WTO on China's economy and the countermeasures that should be taken to weaken and make use of the impact

II. The level and gap between the plastic products industry and its foreign counterparts

China's plastic products industry has grown from scratch, from small to large, and has achieved vigorous development in the past 50 years. In particular, since the reform and opening up, it has gradually formed a relatively complete industrial system, become an important part of China's plastic industry and a new material industry that keeps pace with steel, cement and wood, and has entered the ranks of the world's largest plastic products countries. However, there is still a considerable gap between the overall level of China's plastic products industry and that of developed countries, which is specifically reflected in the following aspects

1. Unreasonable product structure

shows that there are more medium and low-end products, and the number of high-end and missing supporting products decreases; There are many general technology products, few high-tech products and high value-added products. While the production of medium and low-end long-term products such as woven bags and wallpaper is seriously surplus, some high-end products such as artificial leather for shoes, BOPP film for cigarette packaging, 4 ~ 6um capacitor film, packaging and new base materials, as well as many engineering plastic products are still being imported in large quantities

2. The overall equipment level is low, and the process technology is relatively backward

in the past 20 years, although the plastic products industry has accelerated the pace of technological transformation, introduced a large number of advanced equipment from abroad, and established a number of foreign-funded enterprises. The variety and quality of domestic plastic processing machinery have made significant progress, but as far as the whole industry is concerned, it is still 3. The key technology of bio based polyurethane preparation of mechanical connectors has low equipment level The technology is relatively backward. About 20% of the equipment in use belongs to the scope of backward elimination

3. Except for a few large and medium-sized plastic products processing enterprises, most of the enterprises are relatively small

most of the enterprises in the plastic processing industry are relatively small. These enterprises have the disadvantages of poor information, low technical content of products, and can only produce simple products. Due to the blind launch, the products cannot be marketable, and the phenomenon of building factories in a hurry and falling down and closing down one after another can be seen everywhere. At present, although there are a number of large and medium-sized product processing enterprises with an annual output of more than 10000 tons, their scale is still significantly smaller than that of foreign enterprises in the same industry. The total output value of the existing 16 enterprise groups, including Foshan Plastics and Hebei Baoshuo, accounts for less than 10% of the total output value of the whole industry. Another example is PVC pipes. In 1998, China had more than 200 production plants with a total production capacity of about 600000 tons, of which more than 20 enterprises with a production capacity of more than 10000 tons accounted for 40% of the total production capacity, while the output of PVC pipes in Japan was about 550000 tons, of which the sum of the output of ponding chemical and Mitsubishi resin reached 240000 tons, accounting for 43.6% of the total output

4. Over the years, we have trained a large number of professional and technical personnel in plastic processing, and also emerged a number of outstanding entrepreneurs and management talents with pioneering and innovative spirit, who play an important role in the development of plastic products industry. China has spent billions of dollars to purchase and introduce foreign technology and equipment in more than a decade, and created high efficiency and high level, but so far, we have relied on our own strength to study successful processing technology or developed few plastic products. We have always maintained a significant gap with developed countries, mainly due to the lack of scientific and technological investment in the whole industry, and the proportion of scientific research achievements into production is only 20%. Some enterprises place the hope of technological progress on continuous purchase and introduction, and have failed to solve the problem of independent research and development and catching up with and surpassing the international advanced level for a long time

5. The regional gap in the development of plastic products industry continues to expand

the development rate of China's plastic processing industry is higher than the growth of the national economy in the same period. As far as the whole country is concerned, the development of the plastic processing industry is very uneven, which is closely related to the economic development level of various regions. On the whole, the southern region is more developed than the northern region, the coastal region is faster than the mainland, the western region is relatively backward, and the per capita output and consumption are far behind the national average level. Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu are provinces with developed plastic products industry in China. Plastic products processing enterprises in some regions are among the top in the country in terms of quantity and production

6. The supply of domestic plastic raw materials is insufficient and depends too much on imported raw materials

the output, variety and quality of domestic plastic raw materials have made great achievements since the reform and opening up, but they still cannot meet the requirements of the rapid development of the plastic products industry. The amount of domestic resin raw materials for plastics increased from 1.234 million tons in 1985 to 4.893 million tons in 1995, an increase of nearly three times; In the same period, the import volume increased from 1.743 million tons in 1985 to 6.256 million tons in 1995, an increase of 2.74 times. In 1998, the domestic production of plastic resin was 6.76 million tons, while the number of imported plastic raw materials increased significantly; Up to 9.62 million tons, the amount of imported resin is much higher than that of domestic resin production

7. The management of waste plastic recycling and the development of recycling technology do not adapt to the strategic requirements of social and environmental development

plastic materials not only benefit human society, but also are not easy to decompose in the natural environment, so it is easy to cause visual pollution to the environment after being discarded at will. The film fragments left in the soil will also have a negative impact on the growth of crops. No matter considering the environment, or considering the recycling of the limited resources on earth, we must strengthen the management of the recycling of waste plastics and strive to develop recycled plastic products with high added value

III. The impact of China's entry into WTO on the plastic products industry and preliminary suggestions

in recent years, the export volume and import volume of plastic products, according to customs statistics, the export volume of plastic products is greater than the import volume. China's entry into WTO has a beneficial impact on the plastic products industry rather than a negative impact. The beneficial effects are mainly reflected in the development of the international market, which provides a stable, open and fair international trade environment, and enjoys the treatment of contracting parties (normal trade relations) and the GSP treatment of developed countries; The tariff concessions reached in terms of tariffs are expressed in the form of binding tariff rates, which are contained in the tariff schedules of Member States. Member states cannot impose tariffs higher than the binding tariff rate on imported products, which is an important basis for a country to commit to opening its own market and an important condition for a country to obtain benefits in the WTO

adverse effects, such as China's entry into the WTO, China's overall tariffs will be significantly reduced, the number of competitors in the middle class, supply, marketing and other links in the plastic products industry will increase, and the market competition will be more intense. Under the unfair vicious competition conditions of imperfect market mechanism, low price sales and mutual price reduction, some products will be impacted to a certain extent. Such as agricultural film, MDI, BOPET film, artificial leather/synthetic leather and plastic building materials will pour into this market that everyone is optimistic about

facing the current situation of small scale, obsolete equipment and backward technology in the plastic products industry, we must speed up the pace of technological progress and expansion and transformation. Large scale production is particularly important for agricultural film, MDI, BOPET film, etc; Strengthen management, improve quality, reduce costs, actively explore markets, further improve market share, strengthen the development of international and domestic markets, face two markets, use two kinds of resources, implement industrial structure adjustment, product structure adjustment, enterprise organization structure adjustment, and improve the overall quality of the whole industry, including personnel quality and management quality. At the same time, certain measures should be taken as follows:

1 Relevant investments should be cautious, try to avoid vicious competition, implement total amount control, and formulate corresponding industrial policies for industrial protection

2. We will continue to strengthen the fight against smuggling, formulate anti-dumping and anti excessive import measures, standardize the domestic market order and provide a good competitive environment

3. The tariff reduction of products should not be too large

4. We will continue to maintain preferential policies for agricultural film and raw materials. (China Plastics Processing Industry Association liaozhengpin)

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